Designing a password-less authentication system for Noice

3-4 minute read Draft



Access Token

An access token is a short-lived JWT that expires 30 minutes after its issuance. The backend server uses access tokens to authorise access to protected resources. Once an access token expires, a client must request the backend server for a new one using a refresh token.

Refresh Token

A refresh token is a long-lived JWT that expires a week after its issuance. It allows persistent authentication across user sessions. When an access token expires, a client uses the refresh token to issue a new one. The backend server extends the expiration of the refresh token with each re-use.

Token

A sign-in token is a special case of refresh tokens with a shorter expiration (15 minutes).

and Sign-up

To sign in or sign up, clients should make requests to /v1/accounts/signIn and /v1/accounts/signUp API endpoints respectively. For valid requests, the backend sends a sign-in URL to the provided email address. When the user opens the URL using a client of their choice, it must obtain the sign-in token from the URL and exchange it with the backend server for new credentials to conclude the sign-in flow.

Issuing New Credentials

The backend supports two methods for issuing new credentials using a refresh token.

Explicit Exchange

The clients explicitly request /v1/accounts/credentials API endpoint with the token in the X-Refresh-Token header. If the refresh token is valid, the backend responds with a JSON object containing new refresh and access tokens. e.g.

  "refreshToken": "<new-refresh-jwt>",
  "accessToken": "<new-access-jwt>"

Implicit Exchange

If a client prefers using cookies, e.g. web browsers, the backend can perform an implicit token exchange with any API request. The client must send both refresh and access tokens as cookies with every request to the backend server. It is the default behaviour for browsers.

The backend first tries to authenticate the request using the access token cookie. On failing to do it, it looks for the refresh token cookie. If the refresh token is valid, the backend uses it to issue new credentials. It then processes the request and appends Set-Cookie headers to its response.

For example, if a client requests a resource hosted at /v1/test/resource with an expired access token cookie but a valid refresh token cookie, the response will include Set-Cookie headers with new tokens for both cookies.


The backend server supports two modes of signing out users.

  1. If a client requests /v1/accounts/signOut API endpoint with the X-Refresh-Token header, the backend server immediately revokes the token. The backend server does not offer to revoke access tokens because of their short expiration. The clients must immediately discard access tokens from their storage when a user initiates sign-out.

  2. When a client requests /v1/accounts/signOut API endpoint with the refresh token cookie, the backend server immediately revokes the token. The backend server then voids both the refresh token and the access token cookies by adding Set-Cookie headers to the response.

Consuming Protected Resources

The backend server uses access tokens to authorise access to all protected resources. It accepts access tokens via cookies or a bearer token in the Authorization request headers. e.g.

Authorization: Bearer <access-jwt>
Cookie: atc=<access-jwt>

Security Considerations

Password-less Authentication

The users don’t have to bear the burden of remembering, storing or rotating their passwords. On each sign-in request, their access to the registered email validates their authenticity.

Versioned Refresh Tokens

The backend server issues versioned refresh tokens to all users. It is similar to maintaining a chain of refresh tokens. When a client requests new credentials for a user, the backend server increments the version of the refresh token and persists it to the data store. It also assigns the same version to the returned (new) refresh JWT.

In the event of a refresh token theft, two clients will possess the same refresh token. If the backend server receives more than one credential issuance request using the same token, there will be a mismatch between the ordinal claimed by the refresh token and the one known to the backend server. The backend server handles this mismatch by immediately revoking the refresh token, thus, denying further access to both the legitimate and the illegitimate user.